Desarrollo y aplicación de un modelo de desempeño de negocios para microemprendedoras: El caso de Chile

Desarrollo y aplicación de un modelo de desempeño de negocios para microemprendedoras: El caso de Chile

Contenido principal del artículo

Luis Irribarren-Alcaíno https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1096-3180
Joaquín Traverso-Cortés https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1075-9921
Marisa Román-Onsalo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5278-2329

Resumen

En las últimas décadas, las mujeres han asumido un rol significativo en la creación de empresas y en el desarrollo económico. Todo esto, gracias al cambio global no solo en lo geopolítico, sino también en la política económica y social de un importante número de países en todo el mundo. Así, como propietarias de pequeños negocios, contribuyen al desarrollo en países emergentes, como es el caso de Chile. El emprendimiento se ha postulado como una de las principales vías para que las mujeres logren mejorar su nivel económico y social, ya que les permitiría una situación de desigualdad y discriminación difícil de remontar. Este trabajo busca ser un aporte desde una revisión acuciosa de la literatura sobre emprendimiento y desempeño de pequeños negocios de propiedad de mujeres, considerando aquellos factores que inciden en su desarrollo, tomando, como base, los modelos precedentes y teniendo en consideración la realidad chilena. Además, este estudio busca ser una aproximación teórica-práctica aplicada a un país en desarrollo, ya que revela la influencia de aquellos elementos clave para el desarrollo de emprendimientos, como experiencias previas de emprendimiento, conocimiento, redes, la cantidad de horas de dedicación, el sector de actividad y la participación de la familia en el financiamiento del negocio. En este sentido, los resultados del modelo aplicado a Chile muestran un perfil de las mujeres emprendedoras con carencias en el nivel de formación, en experiencia y en pertenencia a redes, cuya principal motivación para emprender es la “necesidad”, con el objetivo principal de “mejorar su calidad de vida”.

Citas

Acs, Z. J. (2008). Foundations of high impact entrepreneurship. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 4(6): 535–620.

Alvarez-Sousa, Antonio (2019). Emprendedores por necesidad. Factores determinantes. Revista

Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 166: 3-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.5477/cis/reis.166.3

Acs, Z. & Amorós, J.E. (2008). Entrepreneurship and competitiveness dynamics in Latin

America. Small Business Economic. Nº 31, 2008.

Agresti, A. (2007). An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis (2ª Ed.), cap. 2.4 (Chi-Squared Tests of Independence, pàg.34), y cap. 3.2.4(Probit Regression Model, pàg.72). Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. En J. Kuhl y J.

Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11-39). Springer.

Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Dorsey Press.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory

of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665-683.

Ajzen, I. y Fishbein, M. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory

and research. Addison-Wesley.

Ajzen, I. y Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. N.J.

Prentice-Hall.

Aldrich, H. y Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. En D. Sexton y

R. Smiler (Eds.), The art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Ballinger.

Amorós, J.E y Mandakovic, V. (2017). Chapter 9: The chilean entrepreneurial ecosystem: Understanding the gender gap in entrepreneurial activity. T. S. Manolova, C. G. Brush, L. F. Edelman, A. Robb y F. Welter (Eds.), Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth of women’s entrepreneurship: A comparative analysis. Disponible DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4337/9781785364624

Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R. & Ray, S. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing. 18, Nº 1, pp. 105-123.

Arenius, P. & Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual Variables and Nascent Entrepreneurship.

Small Business Economics. Vol. 24, Nº 3, pp. 233-247.

Ascher, J. (2012). Female entrepreneurship- An appropriate response to gender discrimination. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 4(8).

Banco Mundial. (2001). Engendering Development Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice.World Bank Policy Research Report. Washington, D.C.2001.

Banco Mundial (BM)-Banco Interamericano del Desarrollo (BID)- Servicio Nacional de

la Mujer (Sernam), que elaboraron el 2007: “Cómo capitalizar el potencial económico de

Chile ampliando las opciones laborales de la mujer”.

Banco Mundial (2008). Sabarwal, Shwetlena; y Terrell, Katherine (2008). Does Gender

Matter for Firm Performance? Evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Policy Research Working Paper 4705.

Banco Mundial (2018). Doing Business.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory NJ.Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologis, 37(2),

-147.

Baum, J. R., Locke, E. A. y Smith, K.G. (2001). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 292-303.

Baum, R. y Locke, E. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of applied Psychology, 89(4), 587-598.

Baumol, W.J. (1990) Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 893-921. https://doi.org/10.1086/261712

Bender, S. (2000). Seven characteristics of the american woman entrepreneur: A hermeneutic

approach to developing a universal characteristics model [tesis de doctorado, Capella University].

Bergoing, R. (2018). Boletín Economía & Gestión N° 50 del Depto. Ingenkiería Industrial,

Universidad de Chile. https://www.dii.uchile.cl/2018/04/10/raphael-bergoeing-porque-chile-no-es-canada/B

BID (2009). Public policies to promote women entrepreneurs project.

Brush, C. (1992). Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective

and future directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(4), 5-30.

Cabrera, E. M. y Mauricio, D. (2017). Factors affecting the success of women’s entrepreneurship: a review of literature. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 9(1), 31-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJGE-01-2016-0001

Carter, S.; Anderson, S. y Shaw, E. (2003). “Women’s business ownership: A review of the academic, popular and internet literature with a UK policy focus”. ARPENT. Annual Review of Progress in Entrepreneurship. Brussels: Vol. 1, pp. 66-89.

Castellaneta, F., Conti, R. y Kacperczyk,A.,2020. The (Un)intended consequences of institutions lowering barriers to entrepreneurship: The impact on female workers. Strategic Management Journal, 41(7).

CEPAL, 2007. Un marco de análisis para el fomento de las políticas de desarrollo productivo con enfoque de género. (Unidad Mujer y Desarrollo Nº 7. Santiago de Chile. Dic.) Autora: Espino, Alma.

CEPAL (2010). Mujeres emprendedoras en América Latina y el Caribe: Realidades, obstáculos y

desafíos. Unidad Mujer y Desarrollo.

Chalmer, D., MacKenzie, N. G., and Carter, S. (2020) Artificial Intelligence and Entrepreneurship: Implications for Venture Creation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 00(0) 1–26.

Cooper, A.C., & Gimeno-Gascon, J.G. (1992). Entrepreneurs, processes of founding, andnew-firm performance. En D.L. Sexton and J.D. Kasarda, eds., The State of the Art of Entrepreneurship. Boston, MA: PWS-Kent Publishing Co.

Cooper, A., Gimeno-Gascon, F. y Woo, C. (1994). Inicial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 9 (5), 371-395.

Crook, T. R., Shook, C., Morris, M. L. & Madden, T. M. (2010). Are We There Yet? An Assessment of Research Design and Construct Measurement Practices in Entrepreneurship Research. Organizational Research Methods January. Vol. 13 Nº. 1, pp. 192-206.

Dahlqvist, J.; Davidsson, P. y Wiklund, J. (2000). Initial conditions as predictors of new venture performance: A replication and extension of the Cooper et al. study. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 1, 1-17.

Davidsson P. and Honig B. (2003), The Role of Social and Human Capital Among Nascent

Entrepreneurs, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 18, n°3, pp. 301-331.

Davidsson, P., Achtenhagen, L. y Naldi, L. (2005). “Research on Small Firm Growth: A

Review Research on Small Firm Growth. In: European Institute of Small Business.

Davidsson, P., Delmar, F. y Wiklund, J. (2006). What do they think and feel about growth?

An expectancy-value approach to small business managers attitudes toward growth. En P.

Davidsson, F. Delmar, y J. Wiklund (Eds.), Entrepreneurship and the Growth of Firms. Edward

Elgar Publishing (pp. 109-140). Cheltenham.

Davidsson, P., Recker, J., von Briel, F. (2018). External enablement of new venture creation: A framework. Academy of Management Perspectives, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2017.0163

Delmar, F. (1997). “Measuring growth: methodological considerations and empirical results”. En R. Donckels y A. Miettinen (Eds) Entrepreneurship and SME Research: On its Way to the Next Millennium, pp. 199-215. Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Hants, England.

What Do They Think and Feel about Growth? An Expectancy-Value Approach to Small Business Managers Attitudes toward Growth.

Dezsö, C. y Gaddis, D. (2012) Does female representation in top management improve

firm performance? A panel data investigation. Strategic Management Journal, 33(9).

Díaz, M.C. y Jiménez, J.J. (2010). “Recursos y resultados de las pequeñas empresas: nuevas perspectivas del efecto género”. Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa. Núm. 42, págs. 151-176.

Dickinson, J.G. y Chakraborti, S. (2001). Nonparametric Statistical Inference, Fourth Edition, Revised and Expanded. Marcel Dekker, Inc. 2003. USA, Cap.6 (6.6), Cap.10 (4) y tablas K y M.

Du Riestz y Henrekson (2000). Testing the female underperformance hypothesis. Small Business Economics, 14(1), 1-10.

Drori, I.; Honig, B. & Wright, M. (2007). Special issue of entrepreneurship theory and practice: transnational entrepreneurship and global reach. Theory and Practice. 31(4).

Edelman, L.F., Brush, C.G, & Manolova, T. (2001). Co-alignment in the resource-performance relationship: strategy as mediator. Academy of Management Research Conference.

Ena-M. I. (2009). Factors affecting performance of women entrepreneurs. Journal of Women’s

Entrepreneurship and Education, Institute of Economic Sciences, 1(2), 39-50. Disponible: http://

www.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/en/1-22009

Fang Lee Cooke & Mengtian Xiao (2021) Women entrepreneurship in China: where are wenow and where are we heading. Human Resource Development International, 24:1, 104-121.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13678868.2020.1842983

Fayolle, A. (2007). Frontmatter. In Entrepreneurship and New Value Creation: The Dynamic of the Entrepreneurial Process (pp. I-Iv). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Flores,B;Landerretche,O. & Sánchez,G.; Propensión al emprendimiento: ¿los emprendedores nacen, se educan o se hacen?. Depto de Economía ,U de Chile. Serie Documentos de Trabajo (SDT) No. 330 Santiago, Enero de 2011.Págs. 1-27.

Foro Económico Mundial (2009). Global gender gap report. http://iberpyme.sela.org/aDocs/

Desarrollando_Mujeres_Empresarias_PYMES.pdf

Foss, L., Henry, C., Ahl, H. & Mikalsen, G.(2019). Women’s entrepreneurship policy research: A 30-year review of the evidence.

Small Business Economy, 53, 409-429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-018-9993-8 GEM (2007-2008-2011-2012-2013, 2017,2018,2019-2020). Documentos disponibles en www.udd.cl

Harshana K. (2016). Investigating the impact of entrepreneurship on economic development. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 23(3).

Hernández,C. y González, D.(2015). Estudio del ecosistema de emprendimiento tecnológico en

Lima: Estudio colectivo de casos [documento]. Congreso ALTEC, Brasil.

Hisrich, R. y Brush, C.G. (1982). The woman entrepreneur as a reflection of type of business. Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp.54-67). Babson College.

Hisrish, R. y Brush, C. (1984). The woman entrepreneur: management skills and business problems. Journal of Small Business Management, 22(1), 30-37.

Hisrich, R. y Brush, C. (1985). Women and minority entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis. En Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (pp.566-586). Babson College.

Hisrich, R., Brush, C., Good, D. & De Souza, G. (1997). Performance in entrepreneurial ventures: does gender matter. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Disponible en: www.babson.edu/entrep/fer/papers97/sum97/hisb.htm

Ibarra, H. (2002). How to stay stuck in wrong caree. Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 40-8.

ILO (2008). Women, gender and the informal economy: An assessment of ILO Research and suggested ways forward.

Ireland, Hitt y Sirmon (2003) A model of strategic entrepreneurship: The construct and its

dimensions. Journal of Management, 29(6).

Jack, S.; Anderson, A. (2002). The Effects of Embeddedness on the Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Business Venturing 17(5):467-487.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(01)00076-3

Jacobides, M. G., Cennamo, C. y Gawer, A. (2018). Towards a theory of ecosystems. Strategic Management Journal, 39(8).

Jamali, D. (2009), “Constraints and opportunities facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries: A relational perspective”, Gender in Management, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp. 232-251.

https://doi.org/10.1108/17542410910961532

Jaziri, R. & Paturel, J. (2010) Academic entrepreneurship ou acadépreneuriat : Vers une reconfiguration du modèle de l’ «université entrepreneuriale». Conference: 9 symposium international sur: “Pratiques entrepreneuriales: Quels enjeux pour l’innovation et la croissance économique en Algérie”. Volume: 30-31. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258099389_Academic_entrepreneurship_ou_acadepreneuriat_Vers_une_reconfiguration_du_modele_de_l%27_universite_entrepreneuriale

Lamolla, L. (2005). Emprender en femenino: la evolución de las políticas económicas locales para emprendedoras en Cataluña. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.

Lee,Fang & Xiao, Mengtian (2021) Women entrepreneurship in China: where are we now and where are we heading, Human Resource Development International, 24:1, 104-121,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2020.1842983

Lerner, M., Brush, C., y Hisrich, R. (1997). Israeli women entrepreneurs: an examination of factors affecting performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(4), 315-339.

Levie, J. (1996). Patterns of growth and performance: An empirical study of young growing

ventures in France, Ireland and Scotland. En Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson

College.

Li, J., Ghosh, R., & Nachmias, S. (2020). A special issue on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on work, worker, and workplace!? Implications for HRD research and practices in time of crisis. Human Resource Development International, 23(4), 329-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2020.1780715

Lindholm, A. & Stevenson, L. (2010). Innovative entrepreneurship policy: linking innovation and entrepreneurship in a European context. Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Vol 1, No 1.

Loscocco K.A., J. Robinson, R.H. Hall y J.K.

Allen (1991). Gender and small business: An inquiry into women’s relative disadvantage.

Social Forces, 70(1), 65-85.

Lumpkin, G.T., & Erdogan, B. (1998). If not entrepreneurship, can psychological characteristics predict entrepreneurial orientation? A pilot study. The ICFAI Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, vol. 1 (1). También publicado por la University of Illinois at Chicago

College of Business Administration.

Manolova, T., Brush, C. & Edelman, L. (2008). What do women entrepreneurs want?. Strategy Change 17: pp. 69–82.

Manolova,T., Brush, C., Edelman, L, Robb,A.and Welter,F. (2017). The Chilean entrepreneurial ecosystem: Understanding the gender gap in entrepreneurial activity.

Ming-Yen, T. W., Siong-Choy, C. (2007). Theorising a framework of factors influencing

performance of women entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 3(2), 1-17.

Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo de Chile. 25 noviembre 2013. Disponible

https://www.economia.gob.cl/subsecretarias/economia

Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo de Chile. 2020. Microemprendimiento Femenino. https://www.economia.gob.cl/category/estudios

OIT (2007, 2008). Competencias y emprendimiento: Reducir la brecha tecnológica y las

desigualdades de género. Gender Equality at the Heart of Decent Work. Brochure - Skills and entrepreneurship: Bridging the technology and gender divide 7 noviembre 2008 https://www.

ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---gender/documents/publication/wcms_097919.pdf

OIT (2015). Informe mundial. La mujer en la gestión empresarial: Cobrando Impulso. Global report: Women in Business and Management:Gaining momentum. 2015.Geneva.

https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/--publ/documents/publication/wcms_316450.pdfPaik, Y, Kang, S. & Seamans, R. Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Political Competition: Howthe Public Sector Helps the Sharing Economy

Create Value. August 2018. Strategic Management Journal 40(4) Follow journal

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.2937

Radović-Marković, Mirjana (2017). Female entrepreneurship: Theoretical approaches. Institute

of Economic Sciences.

Rocha, V. and M. van Praag (2020) Mind the Gap: The Role of Gender in Entrepreneurial Career Choice and Social Influence by Founders, Strategic Management Journal 51(5), 841-86.

Roper, S. (1999). Modelling small business growth and profitability. Small Business Economics, 13(3).

Romero, J.C. (2013) Emprendimiento femenino: ¿La clave del desarrollo social en Chile? Revista emprendedores,

http://revistaemprendedores.co/index.phpoption=com_content&view=article&id=260:emprendimiento-femenino-ila-clave-del-desarrollo-social-en-chile&-catid=41:cell-phones-apdas&Itemid=109

Rothaermel, F., Agung, Sh. and Jiang, Lin (2007). University entrepreneurship: a taxonomy of the literature. Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 16, issue 4, 691-791. Disponible en http://hdl.handle.net/10.1093/icc/dtm023

Sarabia S.F.J. (1999) (Coordinador). Metodología para la investigación en Marketing y Dirección de Empresas. Ediciones Pirámide.

Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2001). Psychologicalpredictors of entrepreneurial success. University

of Jena.

Scott, S. (2009). Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is bad public policy. Small Business Economy, 33, 141–149.

SERCOTEC-OIT (2010). La Situación de la Micro y Pequeña Empresa en Chile, versión marzo 2010. Disponible en: www.sercotec.cl

Shane, S. (2008). The Illusions of Entrepreneurship: The Costly Myths That Entrepreneurs, Investor, and Policy Makers Live By. Yale University Press, 224 páginas.

Shapero, A., y Sokol, L., (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. En C. Kent, D. Sexton y K.H. Vesper (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (pp.72-90). Prentice-Hall.

Sharma, A.; Dua, S.& Hatwal, V. (2012). Micro Enterprise Development and Rural Women Entrepreneurship: way for economic empowerment. A Journal of Economics and Management. Vol.1 Issue 6, September 2012, ISSN 2278-0629.

Sexton, D. y Vesper, K.H. (eds.) The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 72-90.

Showkat, Shagufta (2013) Women Entrepreneurship: Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Management Prudence, [S.l.], p. 14-18, mar. 2013. ISSN 0975-8496.

Stephan, U. M.y Drews, C. (2015). Understanding motivations for entrepreneurship a review of

recent research evidence. Rapid evidence assessment paper february 2015. Enterprise Research

Centre and Aston Business School, Aston University, Birmingham.

Temkin, B. (2009). Informal self-employment in developing countries: Entrepreneurship or

survivalist strategy? Some implications for public policy. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9(1), 135-156. https://doi.org/ 10.1111 / j.1530-2415.2009.01174.x

Terjesen, S., Bosma, N. y Stam, E. (2015). Advancing public policy for high-growth, female, and social entrepreneurs. Public Administration Review, 76 (2).

Terjesen, S., Amorós, J. (2010). Female entrepreneurship in latin america and the caribbean: characteristics, drivers and relationship to economic development. The European

Journal of Development Research, 22, 313-330. https://doi.org/10.1057/ejdr.2010.13

Ucbasaran, D. (2008). The fine “Science” of entrepreneurial Decision Making. Journal of

Management Studies: 45: 1 January.

Van Stel, A. y Storey, D. (2002). The relationship between firm births and job creation. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper, 2: 1-40.

Ventura, R. y Quero, M.J. (2013). Factores explicativos de la intención de emprender en la

mujer. Aspectos diferenciales en la población universitaria según la variable género. Cuadernos de Gestión, 13(1), 127-149.

Verheul, I. y Thurik, R. (2000). Start-up capital: Differences between male and female entrepreneurs.

Verheul, I.; Van Stel, A. y Thurik, R. (2006). Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development: An International Journal, 18(2),

-183.

Verheul, I.; Wennecker, S.; Audretsh, D. y Thurik, R. (2001). “An eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship Policies, institutions and culture”. TI 2001-030/3. Tinbergen Institute.Discussion Paper. March. Center for Advanced Small Business Economics. Erasmus University. Rotterdam.

Verstraete, T & Fayolle, A (2005) Paradigmes et entrepreneuriat. Revue de l’Entrepreneuriat,

vol 4, n°1.

Watson, J. (2002). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Journal Academy of Management, 44(2), 292-303.

Watson, J. (2003). Failure rates for female-controlled business: Are they any different? Journal of Small Business Management, 41(3), 262-277.

Weinzimmer, L.G.; Nystrom, P.C. y Freeman, S.J. (1998). “Measuring Organizational Growth: Issues, Consequences and Guidelines”.

Journal of Management, vol. 24; nº 2, pp. 235-262.

Westhead, P. (2003). Comparing the performance of male- and female-controlled businesses. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(2), 217-224.

Wiklund, J. (1998). “Small business growth and performance: Entrepreneurship and beyond”. Högskolan i Jönköping Internationella Handelshögskolan. 1998. Series: JIBS Dissertation Series, 1403-0470; 3.

Wiklund, J. y Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1), january, pp. 71- 91. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0883902604000047

Zahra, S & Nambisan, S. (2012). Entrepreneurship and strategic thinking in business ecosystems, Business Horizons, Volume 55, Issue 3, Pages 219-229, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2011.12.004