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Rasmussen’s aneurysm (RA) is a pseudoaneurysm of a pulmonary artery (AP), adjacent to or within a tuberculous cavity, appearing in 5% of these lesions. Its rupture might provoke massive hemoptysis (MH) with a near 50% mortality. The aim of this article is to report a case of massive hemoptysis following Rasmussen’s aneurysm. 52-year-old man with recent history of hospitalization due to pneumonia associated to influenza A and decompensated hyperthyroidism, presents outpatient chest radiograph with signs of hyperinflation and scarring apical opacities, the patient returned to the hospital due to sharp pain of left hemi thorax during inspiration accompanied with bloody sputum, asthenia and non-quantified weight loss. He evolves to frank MH, requiring endotracheal intubation managed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Chest computed tomography (CT) reported ground-glass opacity, nodules with a tendency to cavitation, tree-inbud pattern in agreement with inflammation and infection, active TB is considered, and truncus of PA with vascular lesion suggestive of aneurysm dependent on pulmonary circulation, possibly RA. Fibrobronchoscopy reported signs of old and recent bleeding of left bronchial tree, probably of the lingula, blood clots in right bronchial tree. Molecular study and TB cultures was negative. Endovascular procedure with arteriography was carried out, revealing amputation of left distal segmental PA carrying the pseudoaneurysm with complete regression, discarding embolization RA It must be considered among the differential diagnoses of MH, especially on patients with pulmonary TB complications, such as the reported case. Due to its associated increased mortality, once RA is identified, it must be either endovascularly or surgically eradicated.
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