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Introduction: Aspergillosis is the second most frequent opportunistic fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses. It primarily affects the maxillary sinus and occurs mainly in immunocompromised individuals. Infection is caused by inhalation of spores or by an oro-sinusal communication. Aspergillosis is classified into an invasive and non-invasive form or Aspergilloma, which usually affects immunocompetent patients. Violaceous lesions, ulcers, necrosis and tissue destruction can be manifested clinically. Patients may experience pain, paresthesias, increases in the volume of purulent or bloody nasal discharge and congestion. Case report: A 62-year-old female patient, immunocompetent, with a condition evolving for about six years. Condition began after a dental extraction, and consisted of absence of scarring and recurrent episodes of symptomatology suggestive of maxillary sinusitis with poor response to antibiotics. The patient was referred to the maxillofacial care unit, presenting an increase of volume in the right genial region, pain and paraesthesia of infraorbital region. The CT scan showed the presence of a radiopaque foreign body in the right maxillary sinus. A surgical procedure was carried out using the Caldwell-Luc technique and biopsy; the case was diagnosed with Aspergillosis. The patient was treated without antifungal therapy because she had a good immune status. Conclusion: Aspergilloma is the most common form of Aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals. It is usually diagnosed late, as its clinical picture is similar to bacterial sinusitis. In most cases, patients respond well to surgical treatment, and systemic antifungal therapy is not necessary.
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