Latent cephalofacial structure of the albanian population of Kosovo

Latent cephalofacial structure of the albanian population of Kosovo

Main Article Content

Agron Rexhepi
Behlul Brestovci


Anthropometric studies began as a methodology in biological anthropology for comparing of the anthropological features of the today’s nations and previous nations too, as well as in screening and diagnosing of malnutrition. It is evident that a large number of studies have been performed on measures of body height, weight, trunk and limb dimensions, subcutaneous fatness and body composition, etc., but less attention has been paid to cephalofacial measurements. The purpose of this research was to study and explain the latent structure of the humans’ cephalofacial variables.

On 754 healthy entities (561 male entities and 193 female entities), aged 18-35 years, were measured 11 cephalofacial variables. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive parameters, Correlation analysis, and Factorial analyses. Correlation analysis confirms the existing of some variables’ sets, which are characterized with the higher correlations between variables within the set. Through the principal component analysis of the Factor Analysis (rotation method direct obliging, Keiser criterion) were extracted four latent factors which explain 66.39 % of the total variance: Factor of intracranial capacity; Transversal factor of the face; Longitudinal factor of the face. Conclusion: The composition of the extracted factors was compatible with the scientific explanation of the anthropologists regarding the development of the head.


Buretic-Tomljanovic, A., Giacometti, J., Ostojic, S., and Kapovic, M. Sex specific differences of craniofacial traits in Croatia: The impact of environment in a small geographic area. Annals of Human Biology. 34:296–314. 2007.

Coon, C. S. The races of Europe. 2nd Edition. Macmillan,New York, p. 293, 1939.

Cheverud, J. M. (1996) Developmental integration and the evolution of pleiotropy. Am. Zool. 36,44–50.

Dhima, DH. A. Gjurmime antropologjike për shqiptaret (in Albanian) – Anthropological delve for Albanians. Tirana, pp. 28-9, 106-12, 126-8, 1985.

Eder, R. A. Craniofacial anomalies: Psychological perspectives. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. p 68- 71, 1995.

Enlow, D. H. The Human Face: An Account of the Postnatal Growth and Development of the Craniofacial Skeleton. New York: Harper and Row, 1968. Available at: doc/58177884/The-Human-Face Date of access: 15.12.2012

Enlow, D. H., Pfister, C., Righardson, E., and Kuroda, T. An Analysis of Black and Caucasian Craniofacial Patterns. The Angle Orthodontist. 52:281–287, 1982.

Latent cephalofacial structure of the albanian population of Kosovo 41 Ferguson, G.A. The concept of Parsimony in factor analysis. Psychometrika, vol. 19, 4, 1954. Available at:

Friel, M.Ch. Notes on Factor Analysis. Criminal Justice Center, Sam Houston State University. Faculty lecteure notes, 2007.

Lieberman D. E., Ross C. F. and Ravosa M. J. The primate cranial base: Ontogeny, Function, and Integration. Yearbook of pjysical anthropology. 43:117-169, 2000.

Lieberman D. E., Pearson O. M., and Mowbray K. M. Basicranial influence on overall cranial shape. Journal of Human Evolution, 38 291-315, 2000.

Martin, R. & Saller, K. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. Stuttgart. Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1957.

Martin, R., Ober, W., Garrison, C., Welch, K., and Hutchings, R. T. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. p. 195, 2001.

Memoir of Paul Broca. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 10, 242-261, 1881. Accessed from:

Morton S. G. Skulls of various aboriginal nations. Crania Americana. J.Dobson, Chestnut Street.

Philadelphia, 1839. Available at:

summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false Date of access: 27.12.2011

Moss, M. L. & Young, R. W. A functional approach to craniology. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 18, 281–292, 1960.

Radovic, Z., Muretic, Z., Nemirovskij, V., and Coklica, V. G. Craniofacial Variations in a South Dalmatian Population. Acta Stomatol Croat, Vol. 34, br. 4, 399-403, 2000.

Rexhepi, A., & Meka, V. Cephalofacial morphological characteristics of Albanian Kosova population. Int. J. Morphol., 26(4):935-940, 2008.

Saha, R., Dasgupca, P. Secular trends in measures of cephalo-facial traits among Bengalee boys aged 7.0-16.0 years from Kolkota between 1982-1983 and 1999-2001. Intl Jnl Anthropology 21: 33-43, 2006.

StatSoft, Inc. Electronic Statistics Textbook. Tulsa, 2011.

Shils, M. E., Shike, M., Ross, A. K., Caballero, B., and Cousins, R. J. Modern nutrition in health and disease: Role of nutrition in craniofacial and oral tissue development. 10th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1155-1167, 2005. Available at: http:// Date of access: 21.01.2012

Ylli A. Disa të dhëna kraniometrike (Some craniometric data). Tirana, p.64-97, 1975. (in Albanian). Yokota M. Head and facial anthropometry of mixed-race US Army male soldiers for military design and sizing: A pilot study. Applied Ergonomics. 36:379–383, 2005.

Williams, P. L., Bannister, L. H., Berry, M. M., Collins, P., Dyson, M., Dussek, J. E. and Ferguson, M. W. J. Gray’s Anatomy. Soames, R. W. Edn. 38th. London, Churchill Livingstone, p. 612, 1995.

Zemel BS, Riley EM, Stallings VA. Evaluación de la metodología para la valoración nutricional en niños: antropometría, composición corporal y gasto energético. Annu Rev Nutr 1997; 17: 211-235.