Efecto del entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio sobre el tiempo de nado y función pulmonar en jóvenes nadadores de alto rendimiento

Efecto del entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio sobre el tiempo de nado y función pulmonar en jóvenes nadadores de alto rendimiento

Contenido principal del artículo

Pablo Troncoso Galleguillos
Germán Rojas Cabezas
Ricardo González González
Margarita Vicuña Salas

Resumen

El sistema respiratorio puede limitar el desempeño físico en elevadas intensidades de esfuerzo, aún en sujetos entrenados, por lo que se plantea que el entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio (EMI) podría mejorar el tiempo de nado y la función pulmonar en jóvenes nadadores de alto rendimiento. El propósito fue determinar el efecto del EMI sobre la presión inspiratoria máxima (PIMax), la ventilación voluntaria máxima (VVM) y su influencia sobre el tiempo de nado. Seis nadadores (media de edad 15,7 ± 1,0 años) desarrollaron una serie de test fisiológicos y de desempeño físico antes y luego del EMI, incluyendo (1) mediciones de función pulmonar, PIMax, VVM15, (2) pruebas de nado cronometradas de 200m. Todos continuaron con su entrenamiento habitual de 18 horas semanales. El EMI utilizó una válvula portátil, umbral de presión flujo independiente al 70 % de la PIMax, ejecutaron 30 repeticiones dos veces al día durante tres semanas, con un total de 1080 repeticiones. Luego del EMI, la PIMax se incrementó significativamente (p = 0,028) con un 13,8 % de cambio, la VVM15 disminuyó significativamente (p = 0,028) con un -23 % de cambio, los tiempos totales de nado no mostraron diferencias significativas (p = 0,6) con un 0,6 % de cambio y una tendencia positiva en el tramo 150-200 m (-0,1 %). Así, tres semanas de EMI en nadadores de alto rendimiento, tienen un efecto positivo en la PIMax y en la VVM15, indujo mejoras fisiológicas que pueden incorporarse al entrenamiento. Sin embargo, no mejoró el tiempo de nado en pruebas de 200 m.

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