Contenido principal del artículo
Oral class presentations are regularly assigned to adolescents, but often provoke social anxiety, due to the importance of peer approval and need to appraise oneself as normal. Also, little is known about gender differences in girls’ and boys’ interpersonal cognition and appraisals of anxiety and self in anxiety-provoking speech situations. We examined gender differences in interpersonal cognition and appraisals of anxiety in an imagined class presentation scenario in a normative sample of 687 adolescents, 14-16-years-old, from Southwest Finland. Measures included the Classroom Questionnaire of Social Anxiety and Interpersonal Cognition and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. T-tests examined gender differences in interpersonal cognition, and chi-square tests examined adolescents’ appraisals of the likelihood of their own presentation anxiety and self as anxious. Girls more frequently reported positive, and less frequently reported negative, responses toward the depicted, anxious peer than boys. Also, a higher percentage of girls predicted that becoming anxious in the situation was likely, and non-acceptance of self as anxious was more frequent among girls. Boys predicted negative overt classmate reactions (e.g., laughing) towards the depicted, anxious peer, and towards themselves more frequently than did girls. Results are discussed in the context of gender-specific development and procedures for reducing adolescent social anxiety.
Baker, H. J., Lawrence, P. J., Karalus, J., Creswell, C., & Waite, P. (2021). The effectiveness of psychological therapies for anxiety disorders in adolescents: a meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 24(4), 765–782. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-021-00364-2.
Barkai, A. R., & Rappaport, N. A. (2011). Psychiatric perspective on narratives of selfreflection in resilient adolescents. Adolescent Psychiatry, 1(1), 46-54.
Becht, A. I., Nelemans, S. A., Branje, S. J. T., Vollebergh, W. A. M., Koot, H. M., Denissen, J. J. A., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2016). The quest for identity in adolescence: Heterogeneity in daily identity formation and psychosocial adjustment across 5 years. Developmental Psychology, 52(12), 2010–2021. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000245.
Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., Pine, D.S., Stein, M.B., Höfler, M., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H-U (2009). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(8), 903-912. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.8.903.
Blakemore, S. J., Burnett, S., Dahl, R. E. (2010). The role of puberty in the developing adolescent brain. Human Brain Mapping, 31(6), 926-933. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21052.
Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284–290. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.2064.
Clark, L. H., Hudson, J. L., Rapee, R. M., & Grasby, K. L. (2020). Investigating the impact of masculinity on the relationship between anxiety specific mental health literacy and mental health help-seeking in adolescent males. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 76, 102292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102292.
Crone, E. A., Fuligni, A. J. (2020). Self and others in adolescence. Annual Review of Psychology, 71(7), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010419-050937.
DeLuca, J. S. (2020). Conceptualizing adolescent mental illness stigma: youth stigma development and stigma reduction programs. Adolescent Research Review, 5, 153– 171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-018-0106-3.
Essau, C. A., Conradt, J., & Petermann, F. (1999). Frequency and comorbidity of social phobia and social fears in adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37(9), 831–843. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(98)00179-x.
Flannery, R. L., & Smith, R. L. (2017). The effects of age, gender, and gender role ideology on adolescents’ social perspective-taking ability and tendency in friendships (2017) Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 34(5), 617–635. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407516650942.
Furukawa, T. A. Watanabe, N., Kinoshita, Y., Kinoshita, K., Sasaki, T., Nishida, A., Okazaki, Y., & Shimodera, S. (2014). Public speaking fears and their correlates among 17,615 Japanese adolescents. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 6, 99–104.
Gill, C., Watson, L., Williams, C., & Chan, S. W. (2018). Social anxiety and self-compassion in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 69, 163-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.10.004.
Hanlon, H. R., & Swords, L. (2019). Overthinkers, attention-seekers and wallflowers: Peer perceptions of clinical anxiety disorders in adolescence. Journal of Public Mental Health, 18(1), 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-07-2018-0049.
Henderson, L., Gilbert, P., & Zimbardo, P. (2014). Shyness, social anxiety, and social phobia. In S. G. Hofmann & P. M. DiBartolo (Eds.), Social anxiety: Clinical, developmental, and social perspectives (pp. 95–115). Elsevier Academic Press.
Hollarek, M. & Lee, N. C. (2022). Current understanding of developmental changes in adolescent perspective taking. Current Opinion in Psychology, 45, 101308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2022.101308.
Jorm, A., & Wright, A. (2008). Influences on young people’s stigmatising attitudes towards peers with mental disorders: National survey of young Australians and their parents. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192(2), 144-149. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.039404.
Kenny, D. A. (1994). Interpersonal perception: A social relations analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Knappe, S., Sasagawa, S., & Creswell, C. (2015). Developmental epidemiology of social anxiety and social phobia in adolescents. In K. Ranta, A. M. La Greca, L.-J. Garcia-Lopez, & M. Marttunen (Eds.), Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: Development, manifestation and intervention strategies (pp. 39–70). Heidelberg: Springer.
La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(2), 83–94. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022684520514
La Greca, A. M., & Ranta, K. (2015). Developmental transitions in adolescence and their implications for social anxiety. In K. Ranta, A. M. La Greca, L.-J. Garcia-Lopez, & M. Marttunen (Eds.), Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: Development, manifestation and intervention strategies (pp. 95–117). Heidelberg: Springer.
Lau, N., Zhou, A.M., Yuan, A., Parigoris, R., Rosenberg, A. R., Weisz. J. R (2022). Social Skills Deficits and Self-appraisal Biases in Children with Social Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Child and Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-02194-w.
Lynch, H., McDonagh, C., & Hennessy, E. (2021). Social anxiety and depression stigma among adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders 281, 744-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.073.
Moscovitch, D. A. (2009). What is the core fear in social phobia? A new model to facilitate individualized case conceptualization and treatment. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16(2), 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.04.002.
Nelson, E. E., Leibenluft, E., McClure, E. B., & Pine, D. S. (2005). The social reorientation of adolescence: a neuroscience perspective on the process and its relation to psychopathology. Psychological Medicine 35, 163–174. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291704003915.
Pickering, L., Hadwin, J. A., & Kovshof, H. (2020). The role of peers in the development of social anxiety in adolescent girls: a systematic review. Adolescent Research Review, 5, 341–362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-019-00117-x.
Priess, H. A., Lindberg, S. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2009). Adolescent gender-role identity and mental health: gender intensification revisited. Child Development, 80(5), 1531–1544. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01349.x.
Ranta, K., Kaltiala-Heino, R., Koivisto, A. M., Tuomisto, M. T., Pelkonen, M., & Marttunen, M. (2007). Age and gender differences in social anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) as a measure. Psychiatry Research, 153(3), 261–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2006.12.006.
Ranta, K., Junttila, N., Laakkonen, E., Uhmavaara, A., La Greca, A. M., & Niemi, P. M. (2012). Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43(4), 574–591. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0285-2.
Ranta, K., Laakkonen, E., & Niemi, P. (2016). Patterns of metaperception in adolescents with social anxiety: Mind reading in the classroom. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(12), 3497–3510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0519-1.
Reavley, N. J., & Jorm, A. F. (2011). Young people’s stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: findings from an Australian National Survey. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(12), 1033–1039. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048674.2011.614216.
Rice, S., Oliffe, J., Seidler, Z., Borschmann, R., Pirkis, J., Reavley, N., & Patton, G (2021). Gender norms and the mental health of boys and young men. The Lancet Public Health, 6 (8), e541-e542. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00138-9.
Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: Potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 98–131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.98.
Sebastian, C., Burnett, S., & Blakemore, S. J. (2008). Development of the self-concept during adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(11), 441–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.07.008.
Statistics Finland (2007). Statistical yearbook of Finland. Jyväskylä, Finland: Statistics Finland.
Stefan, C. A., & Cheie, L. (2022) Self-compassion and social anxiety in late adolescence: Contributions of self-reflection and insight. Self and Identity, 21:2, 210-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2020.1861082.
Taylor, S. E., Klein, L. C., Lewis, B. P., Gruenewald, T. L., Gurung, R. A., & Updegraff, J. A. (2000). Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fightor- flight. Psychological Review, 107(3), 411-429. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.107.3.411.
Tisak, M. S., Tisak, J., & Laurene, K. R. (2012). Children’s judgments of social interactive behaviors with peers: The influence of age and gender. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 15(4), 555-570. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-012-9194-2.
Tomova, L., Andrews, J. L., & Blakemore, S. J. (2021). The importance of belonging and the avoidance of social risk taking in adolescence. Developmental Review,61, 2021, 100981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2021.100981.
Tousignant, B., Sirois, K., Achim, A. M., Massicotte, E., & Jackson, L. (2017). A comprehensive assessment of social cognition from adolescence to adulthood. Cognitive Development, 43, 214-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.05.001.
Van der Graaff, J., Branje, S., De Wied, M., Hawk, S., Van Lier, P., & Meeus, W. (2014). Perspective taking and empathic concern in adolescence: Gender differences in developmental changes. Developmental Psychology, 50(3), 881–888. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034325.
Van der Graaff, J., Carlo, G., Crocetti, E., Koot, H. M., & Branje, S. (2018). Prosocial Behavior in Adolescence: Gender Differences in Development and Links with Empathy. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 47, 1086–1099. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0786-1.
Weil, L. G., Fleming, S. M., Dumontheil, I., Kilford, E. J., Weil, R. S., Rees, G., Dolan, R. J., & Blakemore, S. J. (2013). The development of metacognitive ability in adolescence. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(1), 264–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2013.01.004.