Association between Socioeconomic Factors and Postoperative Complications of Cholecystectomy

Association between Socioeconomic Factors and Postoperative Complications of Cholecystectomy

Main Article Content

Herman Romero Ramírez
Norma Muñoz Albán
Consuelo Albán Meneses
Alicia Escobar Torres


The article´s goal isto determine if socioeconomic factors influence the postoperative complications of cholecystectomy. For this, the observational study was defined, analytical and quantitative study was conducted in 100 patients who underwent cholecystectomy. A logistic regression model was applied in which risk factors, socioeconomic characteristics, along with a control variable, were incorporated as variables. Three models were run with alternative dependent variables that are delimited by the type of postoperative complication recorded. The results found showed that women show a higher risk of presenting complications after cholecystectomy, the same occurs in older patients. Likewise, the risk is much lower in people with higher education levels and in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, they only have a 5% risk of presenting complications. Postoperative complications after cholecystectomy are minimized by using the laparoscopic technique and socioeconomic factors would influence the risk of suffering postoperative complications after said surgery, which makes laparoscopic cholecystectomy a safe operation with many other benefits and advantages over traditional or conventional surgery.


Aldana, G. E., Martínez, L. E., Hosman, M. A., Ardila, D. A., Mariño, I. F., Sagra, M. R., & Montoya, L. M. (2018). Factores predictores perioperatorios de complicaciones de la colecistectomía por laparoscopia. Revista Colombiana de Cirugía, 33(2), 162-172.

Almeida V. R., Bodes S., A., & Samper, O. (2006). Complicaciones tras colecistectomía en el Hospital Docente Miguel Enríquez (1998 a 2005). Revista Cubana de Cirugía, 45(2), 0-0. Recuperado el 14 de diciembre de 2020 en:

Ambur, V., Taghavi, S., Kadakia, S., Jayarajan, S., Gaughan, J., Sjoholm, L. O., Pathak, A., Santora, T., Rappold, J., & Goldberg, A. J. (2017). Does socioeconomic status predict outcomes after cholecystectomy? The American Journal of Surgery, 213(1), 100-104.

Birkmeyer, N. J. O., Gu, N., Baser, O., Morris, A. M., & Birkmeyer, J. D. (2008). Socioeconomic Status and Surgical Mortality in the Elderly. Medical Care, 46(9), 893-899. JSTOR.

Bisgaard, T., Rosenberg, J., & Kehlet, H. (2005). From acute to chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective follow-up analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 40(11), 1358-1364.

Carbo, G. A., Vera, H. D., & Loor, W. S. (2009). Complicaciones quirúrgicas de cirugías de vesícula y vías biliares y su relación con factores de riesgo y diagnósticos. Hospital del IESS “Dr. Teodoro Maldonado Carbo”, enero 2006—Diciembre 2007. Medicina, 15(1), 25-30.

Carbonell, A. M., Lincourt, A. E., Kercher, K. W., Matthews, B. D., Cobb, W. S., Sing, R. F., & Heniford, B. T. (2005). Do patient or hospital demographics predict cholecystectomy outcomes? A nationwide study of 93,578 patients. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, 19(6), 767-773.

Casanova-Rituerto, D. (2001). Complicaciones de la cirugía biliar. Cirugía Española, 69(3), 261-268.

Diehl, A. K., Rosenthal, M., Hazuda, H. P., Comeaux, P. J., & Stern, M. P. (1985). Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of clinical gallbladder disease. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 38(12), 1019-1026.

Duca, S., Bãlã, O., Al‐Hajjar, N., Iancu, C., Puia, I. C., Munteanu, D., & Graur, F. (2003). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Incidents and complications. A retrospective analysis of 9542 consecutive laparoscopic operations. HPB, 5(3), 152-158.

Elwood, D. R. (2008a). Cholecystitis. Surgical Clinics of North America, 88(6), 1241-1252.

Elwood, D. R. (2008b). Cholecystitis. Surgical Clinics of North America, 88(6), 1241-1252.

Fukunaga, F. H. (s. f.). Gallbladder Bacteriology, Histology, and Gallstones: Study of Unselected Cholecystectomy Specimens in Honolulu | JAMA Surgery | JAMA Network. Recuperado 22 de septiembre de 2020, de

Keus, F., Broeders, I. A. M. J., & van Laarhoven, C. J. H. M. (2006). Surgical aspects of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis and acute cholecystitis. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 20(6), 1031-1051.

Khan, H. N., Harrison, M., Bassett, E. E., & Bates, T. (2009). A 10-Year Follow-up of a Longitudinal Study of Gallstone Prevalence at Necropsy in South East England. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 54(12), 2736-2741.

Khuroo, M. S. (1996). ASCARIASIS. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 25(3), 553-577.

Lee, V. S., Chari, R. S., Cucchiaro, G., & Meyers, W. C. (1993). Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The American Journal of Surgery, 165(4), 527-532.

McKinley, S. K., Brunt, L. M., & Schwaitzberg, S. D. (2014). Prevention of bile duct injury: The case for incorporating educational theories of expertise. Surgical Endoscopy, 28(12), 3385-3391.

Pavón, C. J. C., Bermejo, M. F., Artero, S. M., & Amo Olea, E. del. (2004). Absceso subhepático como complicación tardía de un cálculo intraperitoneal abandonado tras una colecistectomía laparoscópica. Gastroenterología y Hepatología, 27(10), 568-572.

Phillips EH, Berci G, Carroll B, et al. (1990)The importance of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The American Surgeon. Dec;56(12):792-795.

Radunovic, M., Lazovic, R., Popovic, N., Magdelinic, M., Bulajic, M., Radunovic, L., Vukovic, M., & Radunovic, M. (2016). Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Our Experience from a Retrospective Analysis. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 4(4), 641-646.

Schirmer, B. D., Winters, K. L., & Edlich, R. (2005). Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, 15(3).

Shaffer, E. A. (2005). Epidemiology and risk factors for gallstone disease: Has the paradigm changed in the 21st century? Current Gastroenterology Reports, 7(2), 132-140.

Strasberg, S.M., Hertl, M. & Soper, N.J. (1995). An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 180(1), 101-125.

Sureka, B., Rastogi, A., Mukund, A., Thapar, S., Bhadoria, A. S., & Chattopadhyay, T. K. (2018). Gangrenous cholecystitis: Analysis of imaging findings in histopathologically confirmed cases. The Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging, 28(1), 49-54.

Tazuma, S. (2006). Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and classification of biliary stones (common bile duct and intrahepatic). Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 20(6), 1075-1083.

Thangavelu, A., Rosenbaum, S., & Thangavelu, D. (2018). Timing of Cholecystectomy in Acute Cholecystitis. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 54(6), 892-897.

Way, L. W., Stewart, L., Gantert, W., Liu, K., Lee, C. M., Whang, K., & Hunter, J. G. (2003). Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries. Annals of Surgery, 237(4), 460-469.

Wilkins, T., Agabin, E., Varghese, J., & Talukder, A. (2017). Gallbladder Dysfunction: Cholecystitis, Choledocholithiasis, Cholangitis, and Biliary Dyskinesia. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 44(4), 575-597.