El efecto de la evaluación cognitiva en la salud mental de los docentes: un análisis multigrupo

El efecto de la evaluación cognitiva en la salud mental de los docentes: un análisis multigrupo

Contenido principal del artículo

Adérito Seixas
Clara Simães
Rui Gomes
Patrício Costa


La docencia es una actividad exigente y el estrés laboral se ha considerado un problema de salud relevante relacionado con la salud mental del docente. Este estudio buscó analizar las relaciones específicas entre la valoración cognitiva y la angustia psicológica, y si esa relación estaba moderada por el género. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 402 profesores de educación básica y secundaria. El protocolo de evaluación incluyó un Cuestionario Demográfico, la Escala de Valoración Cognitiva Primaria y Secundaria y el Cuestionario de Salud General-12. Se realizó un modelado de ecuaciones estructurales con análisis multigrupo para probar la hipótesis. Los casos clínicos de malestar psicológico en los profesores fueron prevalentes (87%). Los profesores varones asumieron un perfil psicológico significativamente peor, mostrando más síntomas clínicos de ansiedad / depresión que las profesoras. Se encontraron efectos principales significativos para el género en la percepción del desafío y el potencial de afrontamiento, ya que los hombres asumieron más potencial de afrontamiento y las mujeres asumieron una mayor percepción del desafío. La percepción de amenazas fue el predictor más fuerte de la salud mental de los profesores. La percepción de la amenaza y la angustia psicológica fue más fuerte en los hombres, y la percepción de desafío predijo angustia psicológica solo en los varones. Las organizaciones laborales deben implementar estrategias ocupacionales que promuevan una valoración cognitiva más positiva del trabajo.


AbuAlRub, R. F. (2004). Job stress, job performance, and social support among hospital nurses. Journal of nursing scholarship, 36(1), 73-78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04016.x

Arnetz, B. B. (2006). Stress -Why managers should care. In B. B. Arnetz & R. Ekman (Eds.), Stress in Health and disease (pp. 92-121). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2009). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human resource management, 48(5), 677-693. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20294

Baumann, M., Meyers, R., Le Bihan, E., & Houssemand, C. (2008). Mental health (GHQ12; CES-D) and attitudes towards the value of work among inmates of a semi-open prison and the long-term unemployed in Luxembourg. BMC Public Health, 8(1), 214. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-214

Borg, M. G., Riding, R. J., & Falzon, J. M. (1991). Stress in Teaching: a study of occupational stress and its determinants, job satisfaction and career commitment among primary schoolteachers. Educational Psychology, 11(1), 59-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341910110104

Byrne, B. M. (2004). Testing for multigroup invariance using AMOS graphics: A road less traveled. Structural Equation Modeling, 11(2), 272-300. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1102_8

Catano, V., Francis, L., Haines, T., Kirpalani, H., Shannon, H., Stringer, B., & Lozanzki, L. (2010). Occupational stress in Canadian universities: A national survey. International Journal of Stress Management, 17(3), 232. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018582

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural equation modeling, 9(2), 233-255.

Chipimo, P. J., & Fylkesnes, K. (2010). Comparative validity of screening instruments for mental distress in Zambia. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH, 6, 4. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5

Cooper, C. L., & Cartwright, S. (1994). Healthy Mind; Healthy Organization— A Proactive Approach to Occupational Stress. Human Relations, 47(4), 455-471. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679404700405

Darr, W., & Johns, G. (2008). Work strain, health, and absenteeism: a meta-analysis. Journal of occupational health psychology, 13(4), 293-318. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012639

Drapeau, A., Marchand, A., & Forest, C. (2014). Gender differences in the age-cohort distribution of psychological distress in Canadian adults: findings from a national longitudinal survey. BMC Psychology, 2(25), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-014-0025-4

Garcia-Arroyo, J. A., Segovia, A. O., & Peiro, J. M. (2019). Meta-analytical review of teacher burnout across 36 societies: the role of national learning assessments and gender egalitarianism. Psychol Health, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2019.1568013

Gluschkoff, K., Elovainio, M., Kinnunen, U., Mullola, S., Hintsanen, M., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Hintsa, T. (2016). Work stress, poor recovery and burnout in teachers. Occup Med (Lond), 66(7), 564-570. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqw086

Goldberg, D. P. (1972). The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire: A technique for the identification and assessment of non-psychotic psychiatric illness. Oxford: Oxford U. Press.

Goldberg, D. P., & Williams, P. (1988). A user's guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Berkshire: NFER-Nelson Publishing Co.

Gomes, A. R. (2014). Positive human functioning in stress situations: An interactive proposal. In A. R. Gomes, R. Resende & A. Albuquerque (Eds.), Positive human functioning from a multidimensional perspective: Promoting stress adaptation (Vol. 1). New York: Nova Science.

Gomes, A. R., Faria, S., & Gonçalves, A. M. (2013). Cognitive appraisal as a mediator in the relationship between stress and burnout. Work & Stress, 27(4), 351-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2013.840341

Gomes, A. R., Faria, S., & Lopes, H. (2016). Stress and Psychological Health: Testing the Mediating Role of Cognitive Appraisal. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 38(11), 1448-1468. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945916654666

Gomes, A. R., Simães, C., & Dias, O. A. (2017). A theoretical approach of adaptation to stress and implications for evaluation and research. Occupational health (pp. 2-59). Hyderabad, India: Avid Science.

Gomes, A. R., & Teixeira, P. M. (2014). Stress, cognitive appraisal and psychological health: Testing instruments for health professionals. Stress and Health, 32(2), 167-172. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2583

Health and Safety Executive. (2016). Work related stress, anxiety and depression statistics in Great Britain 2016.

Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Iancu, A. E., Rusu, A., Măroiu, C., Păcurar, R., & Maricuțoiu, L. P. (2018). The Effectiveness of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Teacher Burnout: a Meta-Analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 30(2), 373-396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-017-9420-8

Ilies, R., Huth, M., Ryan, A. M., & Dimotakis, N. (2015). Explaining the links between workload, distress, and work–family conflict among school employees: Physical, cognitive, and emotional fatigue. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4), 1136-1149. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000029

Kourmousi, N., & Alexopoulos, E. C. (2016). Stress sources and Manifestations in a nationwide sample of Pre-Primary, Primary, and secondary educators in greece. Frontiers in public health, 4, 73. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00073

Kyriacou, C., & Sutcliffe, J. (1977). Teacher Stress: a review. Educational Review, 29(4), 299-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013191770290407

Kyriacou, C., & Sutcliffe, J. (1978). A Model of Teacher Stress. Educational Studies, 4(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305569780040101

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and Emotion: A new synthesis. New york: Springer Publishing Company.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer publishing company.

MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation Analysis. Annual review of psychology, 58, 593. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085542

Mario, M., Wolfgang, G., Juan-Jose, L., & Norman, S. (2002). Psychiatric diagnosis and classification. UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mayor, E. (2015). Gender roles and traits in stress and health. [Perspective]. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 779. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00779

McIntyre, T., McIntyre, S., & Redondo, R. (1999). Questionário Geral de Saúde [General Health Questionnaire]. Universidade do Minho. Braga, Portugal.

Mearns, J., & Cain, J. E. (2003). Relationships between teachers' occupational stress and their burnout and distress: Roles of coping and negative mood regulation expectancies. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 16(1), 71-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/1061580021000057040

Ohly, S., & Fritz, C. (2010). Work characteristics, challenge appraisal, creativity, and proactive behavior: A multi‐level study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(4), 543-565. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.633

Paškvan, M., Kubicek, B., Prem, R., & Korunka, C. (2016). Cognitive appraisal of work intensification. International Journal of Stress Management, 23(2), 124-146. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039689

Reis, S., Gomes, A. R., & Simães, C. (2018). Stress e Burnout em Professores: Importância dos Processos de Avaliação Cognitiva [Stress and burnout in teachers: the importance of cognitive appraisal]. [Article]. Psicologia, Saúde & Doenças, 19(2), 208-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.15309/18psd190204

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2016). A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling (4th ed.). USA: Routledge.

Shirom, A., Oliver, A., & Stein, E. (2009). Teachers' Stressors and Strains: A Longitudinal Study of Their Relationships. [Article]. International Journal of Stress Management, 16(4), 312-332. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016842

Shirom, A., Oliver, A., & Stein, E. (2010). "Teachers’ stressors and strains: A longitudinal study of their relationships": Correction. International Journal of Stress Management, 17(1), 20-20. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018813

Simaes, C., Gomes, A. R., & Costa, P. (2019). A Multigroup Analysis of the Effect of Cognitive Appraisal on Nurses' Psychological Distress. Nurs Res, 68(3), E1-E11. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0000000000000352

Simães, C., & Gomes, A. (2019). Psychological Distress on Nurses: The Role of Personal and Professional Characteristics. In P. M. Arezes, J. S. Baptista, M. P. Barroso, P. Carneiro, P. Cordeiro, N. Costa, R. B. Melo, A. S. Miguel & G. Perestrelo (Eds.), Occupational and Environmental Safety and Health (pp. 601-610). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). USA: Pearson.