The disadvantage of men against COVID-19. Analysis of the influence of sex on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The disadvantage of men against COVID-19. Analysis of the influence of sex on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Main Article Content

Adriana Pedreáñez
Jesús Mosquera-Sulbarán
Nelson Muñoz
Diego Tene
Jorge Robalino


The world is during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). In most countries, the mortality rate, as well as, the severity of the disease is higher in men than in women. This sex bias suggests that men are more likely to develop severe complications or succumb to severe complications, leading to death. Therefore, it is important to understand the sex-based biological elements that influence the immune response. The aim of this review was to review the available evidence on the different factors that could explain this sex disparity. We addressed the differences in the immune response in both sexes taking into account genetic, hormonal and the role of the renin-angiotensin system. For this purpose, a thorough search was performed in different databases using the following keywords: (Sex difference, genetics, sex hormones, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, immune response, inflammation, men, women). The results of our analysis provide a clearer understanding on the influence of sex differences on the ability to respond to an infection, with special emphasis to SARS-CoV-2 infection.  Knowing these factors will not only help to better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19, but will also guide the design of effective therapies for personalized medicine based on sex differences.


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